Now in 3D! Microscope offers new way to view live cancer cells

first_imgIn what could transform the study of cells’ interactions with their environment, researchers have invented a microscope that can look at live cancer cells in 3D, with high resolution in every direction. Previously, high-resolution live imaging has been done with cells cultured on glass slides, which flattens samples. Live cells are highly sensitive to their surroundings, so the new microscopy strategy—which replaces glass slides with blocks of collagen—could help reveal more natural behaviors. The technique, called microenvironmental selective plane illumination microscopy (meSPIM), uses exceptionally long, thin beams of laser light to trigger fluorescence in a sample, causing it to glow. It can reveal details as small as 300 nanometers while maintaining a wide field of view in samples that mimic real tissues. This could allow researchers to watch complex processes such as cell signaling in cancerous and noncancerous tissue, according to a study published today in Developmental Cell. In that work, the researchers found that melanoma cells behave differently inside the collagen, versus under glass slides, forming a greater number of rounded bulges known as “blebs.” They were able to measure factors such as the size and shape of the blebs and the distribution of particular proteins using algorithms that quantified what the microscope saw. In the lung cancer cell shown above at left, red shades indicate the presence of actin, a structural protein important in cell movement. In the melanoma cell to its right, red indicates activity of a signaling molecule called PI3-kinase. Such images could help researchers learn how cancer cells invade other tissues.last_img read more

In the polar ‘twilight zone,’ these unusual sea creatures outshine the starlight

first_imgThe ocean’s twilight zone is a spooky place, where creatures like krill and “werewolf” plankton hunt—and hide—using only the light they themselves emit. In most seas, the zone is deep, stretching from 200 to 1000 meters beneath the surface. But new research has found that in the winter waters near Norway’s Svalbard archipelago, the zone shifts upward during the long polar night, bringing some of these creatures close to the surface. What’s more, the denizens of the zone live in distinct layers, with some dominating the upper levels and others ruling below. The findings could lead to a new understanding of polar marine ecosystems, even as they are endlessly transformed by melting sea ice.“This is a new look at the structure of the water column in the polar night,” says Edith Widder, an oceanographer and biologist who studies bioluminescence at the Ocean Research & Conservation Association in Fort Pierce, Florida. “[This] looks at the impact of one of the most important organizational principles in the open ocean, light, including the light animals make themselves.”The polar night was long considered a time of hibernation. For nearly 4 months, the sun disappears entirely; tiny animals at the base of the food chain were thought to die off or go dormant. But that thinking changed in 2007, when sonar equipment used by marine ecologist Jørgen Berge picked up on a strange signal: an echo that descended predictably during the day and rose at night. In warmer waters, a similar pattern marks the daily movement of millions of marine creatures up and down the water column. The sonar echo meant this mass migration was also happening near the poles, triggering a complete re-evaluation of Arctic ecosystems. Since 2012, Berge, at the University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway, has led annual expeditions examining everything from “werewolf” plankton to clams with internal clocks timed to an absent sun.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)In their dark journeys, Berge and his team discovered an unexpected abundance of bioluminescence. They began wondering where the creatures’ own light took over from the virtually nonexistent daylight and how that glow affected predator-prey relationships. But to do so, the team had to first quantify how much light was being produced—and by what.The scientists started by netting a variety of organisms, from krill to comb jellies to copepods, small crustaceans that form the base of the Arctic food chain. Then, they used a special device to measure the emitted light: an Underwater Bioluminescence Assessment Tool (UBAT), designed in part by team member Mark Moline, a marine ecologist at the University of Delaware (UD) in Newark. Like a mini vacuum cleaner, the breadbox-sized black box sucks water into a chamber and whips it, prompting the creatures inside to light up.               “It measures every 1/60 of a second, so you get to see the kinetics of the actual flash,” Moline says. “Each organism emits a different signal in terms of intensity and duration. It almost looks like a Morse code or a heartbeat.”In the lab, the scientists examined 17 species and came up with distinct signals for seven of them. Then, over the course of two 3-week cruises in 2014 and 2015, they used their key to map the entire column in 20-meter increments down to 120 meters. Finally, they calculated the total bioluminescence of each level and compared it with the light that should have reached that depth from the atmosphere. The brightness from bioluminescence surpasses starlight, moonlight, and even the nearly imperceptible noontime daylight about 20 to 40 meters below the surface, they report this week in Scientific Reports. Further, dinoflagellates, microscopic creatures that can selectively photosynthesize, dominate the upper ranges, whereas copepods rule the deeper realms.“We tried to … break out who’s there and where they are and how much light are they producing,” says paper author and visual ecologist Jonathan Cohen of UD. “We put that together with where atmospheric light and bioluminescence actually flip roles.” Jonathan Cohen, visual ecologist at the University of Delaware, adjusts the reflectance plate on his light meter before setting off to take measurements of atmospheric light. The team’s next step is to explore the role bioluminescence plays in predator-prey dynamics. Cohen, who specializes in krill bioptics, has already mathematically modeled how far away and at what depth a keen-eyed krill can detect a predatory bird diving into the twilight zone, especially if that bird happens to be trailing a line of brightly lit dinoflagellates. The findings suggest that extra light from other creatures may save the krill from becoming an untimely snack. But the research has other ramifications.“One of the major implications of climate change in the Arctic is thinning ice and a changing light climate,” Cohen says. Sea ice blocks daylight, so less frozen ocean makes seas a brighter place, possibly posing problems for animals adapted to darkness in the polar night. “Changing the atmospheric light portion even in times of twilight will influence the role bioluminescence can play.”center_img Randall Hyman last_img read more

China opens unique free electron laser facility

first_imgMost of the FEL user facilities now operating in Europe and the United States produce “hard” x-ray laser beams, with wavelengths down to 0.1 nanometers, ideal for studying crystallized proteins and other solids. But the beams are so powerful “they break up molecules” in gases, says Yang Xueming, a physical chemist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences’s (CAS’s) Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, which hosts the new machine. A laser in the vacuum ultraviolet range—the Dalian facility will cover 50–150 nanometers—“has a soft touch,” he says, making it “the best way to detect molecules and atoms in a gas.” He expects researchers to use the FEL pulses to probe what happens during fuel combustion, how biomolecules behave in gases, and how reactions proceed at solid-gas interfaces. Some experiments could have a very practical payoff, he says: a better understanding of how noxious aerosols—a component of smog that plagues cities like Beijing and New Delhi—form and degrade in the atmosphere.Wodtke is getting in line to use the facility. He is negotiating an agreement with CAS under which he and his Max Planck colleagues can work at the Dalian light source. The project’s promoters “were very clever” to recognize the gap in FEL capabilities, he says. “I am very enthusiastic about it.”More Chinese FEL facilities are on the way. Wang Dong, an accelerator physicist at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics in China, which was a partner on the Dalian project, says the institute’s new “soft” x-ray FEL produced its first light last week and expects to open to users in about 2 years. Now, the Shanghai institute is planning China’s own hard x-ray FEL. China is joining the elite club of countries that have equipped researchers with the potent sources of high-energy photons called free electron lasers (FELs). The Dalian Coherent Light Source, whose completion was announced today in Beijing, has a twist that makes it unique: It is the only large laser light source in the world dedicated to the particular range of short-wavelength light called vacuum ultraviolet, which makes it “a new tool for the detection and analysis of molecules undergoing chemical reactions,” says Alec Wodtke, a physical chemist at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry and the University of Göttingen in Germany..Scientists around the world have rushed to build FELs over the past decade because they produce vastly brighter light, in shorter pulses, than synchrotrons, the particle accelerators that have been the workhorses of protein crystallography and cell biology and materials science. In synchrotrons, electrons go whizzing around a storage ring a kilometer or more in circumference. As their paths bend, the electrons throw off photons that are formed into beams.In contrast, FELs fire electrons from a linear accelerator into an undulator, in which magnets of alternating polarity push and pull the electrons along a sinuous path. As the electrons round each bend, they produce photons. Interactions between the electrons and the accumulating photons as they travel through the undulator generate coherent laser light (Science, 10 May 2002, p. 1008).Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

Uh oh. Studies find little U.S. money to study ecological impacts of chemicals

first_imgU.S. government funding for studies of how synthetic chemicals affect the environment isn’t keeping pace with the rapidly expanding use of these substances, which include pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and industrial agents, two recent analyses conclude.There has been a precipitous decline since the 1980s in the amount of money available for external research grants at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which is primarily responsible for regulating chemical use, four researchers noted last month in an opinion piece published in Environmental Science & Technology (ES&T). And relatively few journal papers or grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Environmental Biology (DEB)—the nation’s major funder of ecological research by academics—focus on the issue, finds a study published this week in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (FREE).One result: “[C]hemicals continue to be approved for commercial use, although their environmental impacts are unknown,” writes G. Allen Burton of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and colleagues in ES&T.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The production of synthetic chemicals has increased dramatically since the 1970s, with millions of new substances created every year. And the accelerating pace of commercial chemical introductions now “exceeds that of most previously recognized agents of global change,” such as nutrient pollution and habitat destruction, note the authors of FREE study, led by Emily Bernhardt of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.But the ecological impacts of chemical introductions are getting relatively little attention from academic scientists, Bernhardt and her co-authors discovered after reviewing funding and publishing trends, and presentations at a major scientific meeting. Less than 1% of papers published in the most highly cited ecological journals over the past 25 years dealt with synthetic chemicals. At the largest-ever international conference of ecologists in 2015, just 1.3% of research presentations mentioned contaminants. And when they examined funding trends at NSF’s DEB, a major source of grants for ecological science at universities, they found that less than 3% of current grants (those active as of 1 January 2016) focused on the topic.NSF divisions other than DEB have funded studies of contaminants from time to time, notes Alan Tessier, DEB’s deputy director in Arlington, Virginia. But, in general, NSF and its peer-review panels that grade proposals have traditionally left more applied research on chemical impacts to other federal agencies, including EPA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, say those familiar with the issue.EPA has struggled with flat or declining budgets over the past few decades, note Burton and his co-authors, and funding devoted to its primary external granting program—called Science To Achieve Results—has dropped from about 1% of the agency’s budget at its peak in 2001 to about 0.5% now. As a result, “virtually no extramural research funding at the EPA exists for the ecological impacts of chemicals; rather, most funds are directed toward human health and, more recently, climate change,” they write.“It’s mind-boggling to think we can study the environment and ecosystems in the absence of chemicals,” Burton says, “because they are everywhere now.”One solution, Burton suggests, is for U.S. scientists to try to copy relatively successful efforts in Australia to create cooperative grant programs between industry, academia, and government.last_img read more

The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is one the government isn’t telling you about

first_imgThomas Hafeneth/creative commons The top ways to reduce your carbon footprint The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is one the government isn’t telling you about Recycling and using public transit are all fine and good if you want to reduce your carbon footprint, but to truly make a difference you should have fewer children. That’s the conclusion of a new study in which researchers looked at 39 peer-reviewed papers, government reports, and web-based programs that assess how an individual’s lifestyle choices might shrink their personal share of emissions.Many commonly promoted options, such as washing clothes in cold water or swapping incandescent bulbs for light-emitting diodes, have only a moderate impact (see chart, below), the team reports today in Environmental Research Letters. But four lifestyle choices had a major impact: Become a vegetarian, forego air travel, ditch your car, and—most significantly—have fewer children. Credits: (Graphic) J. You/Science; (Data) Seth Wynes and Kimberly A Nicholas, Environmental Research Letters (2017) By Sid PerkinsJul. 11, 2017 , 4:30 PM Eating no meat cuts an individual’s carbon footprint by 820 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, on average, about four times the reduction they’d get by recycling as much as possible. (Emissions generated by eating meat result, in large part, from the large amounts of energy needed to grow, harvest, and process feed crops.) Foregoing one round-trip transatlantic flight each year would cut a person’s emissions of CO2 by 1600 kilograms. Getting rid of their car would reduce emissions by 2400 kilograms, or 2.4 metric tons. And by choosing to have one fewer child in their family, a person would trim their carbon footprint by a whopping 58.6 metric tons—about the same emissions savings as having nearly 700 teenagers recycle as much as possible for the rest of their lives.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Despite the effectiveness of these four measures, neither the textbooks in Canadian schools nor government reports or websites in the European Union, the United States, Canada, or Australia highlight these choices, possibly because most of them require such extreme changes in lifestyle.last_img read more

Surprise! The proton is lighter than we thought

first_imgA model shows protons and neutrons huddled in an atomic nucleus.  carloscastilla/iStockphoto You can’t weigh the universe’s smallest particles on a bathroom scale. But in a clever new experiment, physicists have found that one such particle—the proton—is lighter than previously thought.“It’s a significant improvement on the mass of the proton,” says Edmund Myers, a physicist at Florida State University in Tallahassee who wasn’t involved with the work. “I can’t see any holes in what they’ve done. They’ve done a good job.”The tiny, positively charged particles known as protons are everywhere. They inhabit the center of every atom and make up most of the sun and other stars. They’re so light—just billionths of a billionth of a billionth of a kilogram—that they can’t be weighed by ordinary means. But in recent decades, physicists have combined strong electric and magnetic fields in a device called a Penning trap to measure the proton’s mass more and more precisely. In these experiments, electric and magnetic fields trap the proton while the magnetic field forces it to move in a circle. While it rotates, the proton will vibrate, or oscillate, at a frequency that’s related to its mass. Researchers can calculate the proton’s mass by measuring this frequency, and comparing it to that of a reference—typically, the nucleus of a carbon-12 atom, which is defined as 12 atomic mass units.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)But no experiment is perfect. Magnetic fields vary in time and space, causing small measurement errors. To reduce the impact of these fluctuations, a group of physicists working in Mainz, Germany, loaded the carbon nucleus and the proton into separate storage traps, then shuttled them quickly into and out of the measurement trap. Although swapping the nucleus and the proton required more than 30 minutes in previous experiments, the German group needed only about 3 minutes—limiting the chances for errors to accumulate. The team also added more motion detectors to their setup, leading to a measurement with an overall precision of 32 parts per trillion.The researchers found the mass to be 1.007276466583 atomic mass units. That’s roughly 30 billionths of a percent lower than the average value from past experiments—a seemingly tiny difference that is actually significant by three standard deviations, the team reports this week in Physical Review Letters. (By comparison, scientists typically consider two standard deviations enough for an experimental result to be statistically significant.)Sven Sturm, a physicist at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany, and the group’s leader, is not sure why other researchers measured such higher masses, but he suspects hidden sources of error. He adds, however, that his team’s result agrees better than previous ones with recent measurements of the mass of the helium-3 atom, which is made of two protons and one neutron.The German team now plans to further ratchet up precision by measuring the proton and the carbon ion simultaneously in separate traps, which would eliminate uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations. One group member will also attempt to weigh the antiproton—the proton’s negatively charged doppelganger. Even a tiny difference between the proton’s and antiproton’s masses could help explain why the universe we see is made of matter, and antimatter is exceedingly rare.Sturm also wants other research groups to make independent measurements, to ensure that his team’s results don’t suffer from some hidden error. (The two main groups providing previous measurements are no longer active.) “I would be really happy to see more groups doing measurements at this level of precision, so we can really compare values and find, hopefully, that they’re consistent,” he says.*Correction, 21 July, 12:45 p.m.: This story has been modified to clarify how the Penning trap works and how the researchers measured the particles’ masses. By Gabriel PopkinJul. 20, 2017 , 3:15 PM Surprise! The proton is lighter than we thoughtlast_img read more

Neandertals, like humans, may have had long childhoods

first_img © S.Plailly, E.Daynes/LookatSciences This skeleton of a Neandertal boy showed that he grew up slowly, like modern human children. Neandertals, like humans, may have had long childhoods Neandertal children may have grown up as slowly as modern humans.  All of this work had to focus on only one part of the body, because more complete skeletons of Neandertal children are so rare. The discovery of a 49,000-year-old partial skeleton of a child at El Sidrón cave in northwestern Spain offered a chance to compare growth rates across the body and skull. A team led by Spanish researchers measured the maturation of the teeth, skull, spine, elbow, hand, wrist, and knee, assessing the child’s development in a holistic way, says first author Antonio Rosas, a paleoanthropologist at the National Museum of Natural Sciences in Madrid.Anatomist Christopher Dean of University College London first calculated the age of the child—probably a boy, given the robustness of its bones—at death by counting daily growth lines in slices of one of his molars. The result was 7.7 years, which allowed the team to benchmark the child’s dental growth against data from more than 10,000 modern children from around the world. Then, the team examined computerized tomography scans of his bones to chart how six key places calcified during development. The boy’s limb bones were maturing at the same rate as children his age today, the team reports today in Science.However, the vertebrae at the center of his spine had not yet fused, unlike those in modern human children of similar age. And the back of the Neandertal child’s skull showed signs that his brain was still growing. The team noted that the child’s brain had reached only about 87% of an average adult Neandertal’s brain size, whereas modern human brains reach 90% of their adult size by age 5. “Neandertals and modern humans are following the same growth pattern, but we have detected some subtle differences,” Rosas says.Some experts are wary of making sweeping conclusions about Neandertals from the study of only one child. “Neandertal first molars typically grow at a faster rate than modern human molars … which makes this individual unusual,” says paleoanthropologist Tanya Smith of Griffith University in Nathan, Australia, who studies Neandertal tooth development. Also, the brains and bodies of adult Neandertals vary in size, and this individual might have grown up to be a relatively small-brained Neandertal, Ponce de León and Zollikofer say. In their view, these subtle differences are “almost certainly an issue of statistics.”Rosas hopes to confirm the overall pattern of growth in another partial skeleton of a Neandertal child, such as one in Russia. In the meantime, he says small differences in this boy’s development may offer clues about what makes humans different. Says Rosas: “In this fine modulation, we might find reasons to understand why Neandertals are Neandertals, and modern humans are modern.”center_img By Ann GibbonsSep. 21, 2017 , 2:00 PM Paleoanthropology Group MNCNCSIC Neandertals have long been seen as the James Deans of human evolution—they grew up fast, died young, and became legends. But now, a rare skeleton of a Neandertal child suggests that our closest cousins didn’t all lead such fast lives—and that our own long childhoods aren’t unique. The find may reveal how Neandertals, like humans, had enough energy to grow bigger brains.“We like the paper because it puts the idea of ‘Neanderthal exceptionalism’ to rest,” wrote anthropologist Marcia Ponce de León and neurobiologist Christoph Zollikofer from the University of Zurich in Switzerland (who are not authors of the new study) in an email. “RIP.”Researchers have long known that modern humans take almost twice as long as chimpanzees to reach adulthood and have wondered when and why our ancestors evolved the ability to prolong childhood and delay reproduction. Our distant ancestors, such as the famous fossil Lucy and other australopithecines, matured quickly and died young like chimps. Even early members of our own genus Homo, such as the 1.6-million-year-old skeleton of an H. erectus boy, grew up faster than we do.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)But by the time the earliest known members of our species, H. sapiens, were alive 300,000 years ago at Jebel Irhoud in Morocco, they were taking longer to grow up. A leading theory is that big brains are so metabolically expensive that humans have to delay the age of reproduction—and, hence, have longer childhoods—so first-time mothers are older and, thus, bigger and strong enough to have the energy to feed babies with such big brains after birth when their brains are doubling in size.Earlier studies found that Neandertal permanent teeth grew significantly faster and erupted earlier than those of our own species. This suggested that we reach adulthood a few years later than Neandertals, and that our developmental schedule is unique. But a recent study of the skulls of 15 Neandertals by Ponce de León and Zollikofer found that different parts of the brain developed after birth in a pattern similar to modern humans, which suggested Neandertals also had longer childhoods.last_img read more

How bighorn sheep use crowdsourcing to find food on the hoof

first_img By Elizabeth PennisiSep. 6, 2018 , 2:00 PM How bighorn sheep use crowdsourcing to find food on the hoof If you’re a hungry human, you’re probably in luck: Crowdsourced apps like Yelp can help you find food in a pinch. But what if you’re a bighorn sheep? A new study shows how these grazers get food on the hoof—even as their “restaurants” shift from location to location.Each spring, a green wave of plants rolls over the world’s temperate zones, as new growth pops up from south to north—and from lower to higher elevations. Biologists have long debated whether the following herds of grazers are born with these migration maps built into their brains or whether they have to learn the route from the rest of the herd.To find out, scientists studied the seasonal movements of three groups of grazers: bighorn sheep that had been in the same location for centuries, sheep and moose that had been relocated to their current grazing grounds between 10 and 110 years earlier, and sheep that had just recently been moved to a new grazing location. The researchers outfitted them with GPS collars and followed their movements as they migrated, comparing them to the richness of the vegetation along their routes, as measured by satellite data.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)They found that the first group excelled at following the green wave of new growth. Sheep and moose in the second group had varying levels of success. And animals in the third group didn’t migrate at all, but ate what they could where they were.It was the movements of the second group that were the most telling: The longer the sheep or moose had been at these new locations, the better they became at following the green wave, the researchers report today in Science.The researchers also found that other factors, such as crowding, habitat loss, or increased predation did not strongly affect the tendency to migrate, suggesting that knowledge alone, either learned from others or gained by experience, helped the sheep take advantage of new growth. That suggests culture plays a vital role in how grazers find food, and that once such knowledge is lost—unlike old Yelp reviews—it may take decades to resurface.last_img read more

Indian scientist dies after Gandhi-style hunger strike to save the Ganges River

first_imgA boy searches for coins and gold in the polluted waters of the Ganges River in the city of Allahabad, India. The current prime minister, Narendra Modi, launched his 2014 election campaign from the banks of the Ganges in the city of Varanasi, saying he had been called on by “Mother Ganga” to restore the river, which is considered the holiest of rivers by millions of Hindus. “But in the past 4 years all actions undertaken by your Government have not at all been gainful to Ganga and in her place gains are to be seen only for the corporate sector and several business houses,” Agrawal wrote to Modi in August, in a stinging letter.Indeed, the Modi government has initiated a plethora of projects—including development of waterways, riverfront development, dredging, and interlinking of rivers—that has adversely affected the Ganges, says Himanshu Thakkar, a river expert and coordinator of the South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People, a nonprofit based in New Delhi. Commerce has taken priority over conservation, Thakkar says. purnapramati.in One of India’s leading environmentalists paid the ultimate price last week in his efforts to protect and restore the Ganges River, also known as the Ganga. Guru Das Agrawal, a former professor of environmental engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology in Kanpur, died on 11 October following a 111-day fast that he hoped would compel India’s government to make good on its promise of cleaning up the Ganges.Agrawal, 86, was a former graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley, and served as the first head of India’s Central Pollution Control Board. He became a Hindu ascetic in 2011, dedicating himself completely to revivifying the dying Ganges and taking on the name of Swami Gyan Swaroop Sanand.Environmentalists have long deplored the state of the Ganges. Numerous hydroelectricity projects on the river and its tributaries have blocked the free flow of water; villages and cities are withdrawing ever larger amounts of water while releasing huge amounts of sewage into the river.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Indian scientist dies after Gandhi-style hunger strike to save the Ganges River By Sanjay KumarOct. 16, 2018 , 3:15 PM Guru Das Agrawal, a former graduate student of the University of California, Berkeley, began his fast on 22 June. He died on 11 October. Sanjay Kanojia/AFP/Getty Images Agrawal started his Mahatma Gandhi–style hunger strike on 22 June. Among his demands were an end to all hydroelectric projects on the Ganga and its tributaries and to sand mining activities, the constitution of an independent body to manage Ganges affairs, and legislation to protect the river.Earlier fasts by Agrawal had been successful. In 2009, for instance, then–Prime Minister Manmohan Singh decided to cancel a hydropower project on the Bhagirathi River, a source stream of the Ganges in northern India, and declared part of the river an “eco-sensitive zone.” Modi, by contrast, did not take action and didn’t respond to Agrawal’s letters. On 9 October, Agrawal, who until then had survived on a honey-water mix, decided to stop drinking water as well. He was picked up by the police and taken to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in Rishikesh on 10 October to be force-fed, but he died the next day.Modi promptly sent out a tweet saying he was “saddened” by Argrawal’s demise, further upsetting environmentalists. “There was no response at all to Agrawal’s letters from Modi, which is what killed him,” Thakkar says. “Now, that man is sending an obituary tweet—how far can we go in hypocrisy?” Some were also angered that government spokespeople claimed on TV that Agrawal’s demands had been met.“The state of Ganga today is worse than what it was in May 2014 when the Modi government took over and is worsening,” Thakkar cautions. “Implementing Agrawal’s demands would help,” he says, but more is needed. The government needs to adopt a more transparent, accountable, and participatory approach toward cleaning and protecting the Ganges, Thakkar says, and needs to build more eco-friendly sewage treatment plants.last_img read more

This amazing blue tarantula is a new spider species—but did researchers break the law when they studied it?

first_img By Yao-Hua LawFeb. 27, 2019 , 12:00 PM Chien Lee This amazing blue tarantula is a new spider species—but did researchers break the law when they studied it? A spectacular spider is new to science. A female of the world’s most recently named tarantula species has electric-blue legs and a creamy toffee body. She’s native to the state of Sarawak in Malaysia and would fit nicely in your palm. Spider fanciers were thrilled when the new species came to light. But its emergence also highlights a growing illegal trade in tarantulas and researchers’ laissez-faire attitudes about dubious specimens.The spider was described in the February issue of The Journal of the British Tarantula Society by arachnologists Ray Gabriel and Danniella Sherwood, who list their affiliation as the Hope Entomological Collection, Oxford University Museum of Natural History in the United Kingdom. They classified the spider as a new species in a new genus and named it Birupes simoroxigorum. Its genus name stems from biru, the Malay word for blue; simoroxigorum incorporates names of the children (Simon, Roxanne, and Igor) of the three European collectors who provided the specimens. They captured the animals in the forests of Sarawak and transported them to Europe. But the Forest Department of Sarawak says they lacked permits to collect or export wildlife.”This case reflects the all-too-prevalent bio-piracy in Malaysia,” says Chien Lee, a naturalist and photographer in Sarawak. With Lars Fehlandt, a German photographer, Lee found the tarantula in September 2017, about 6 weeks before the collectors did, and posted photographs online.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Sherwood says she and her co-author “had no reason to believe” that the specimens were illegal. They received two dead spiders from the collectors “in good faith, meaning that we were told they were legally collected with all appropriate paperwork needed,” she wrote in an email. Science requested that Sherwood provide records of those permits, but she did not respond. Gabriel did not respond to requests for comment.The collectors, Krzysztof Juchniewicz, Emil Piorun, and Jakub Skowronek—based in Poland and the United Kingdom—find, breed, and sell tarantulas. Juchniewicz concedes they had no permit for collection, saying he didn’t know they needed one. But he insists they didn’t smuggle the tarantulas out of Malaysia, saying their driver mailed the spiders to Europe. “I’ve got all the necessary documents” for legal import, he says. “We didn’t do anything wrong.” (The other two collectors didn’t respond to requests for comment.)Science reconstructed their expedition to Sarawak in October and November 2017 from the collectors’ public Facebook posts, online chats with Juchniewicz provided by Fehlandt, and an interview with Juchniewicz. The three had been planning the trip for months. But they likely found out about what would make a prize catch just a few weeks earlier, on 14 September 2017, when Lee and Fehlandt posted their photos. The photographers named a nearby city as the vicinity of the sighting—a decision Lee now regrets.After the collectors trekked many kilometers over “plenty of nights” in “every type of jungle,” they triumphantly announced on Facebook that they found their target on the night of 2 November 2017. In photos, each of the three men gingerly holds the then-unnamed B. simoroxigorum. (The photos were removed after this article was published.)Sometime after their return to Europe, Juchniewicz, Piorun, and Skowronek passed two dead specimens to Gabriel and Sherwood for identification. When the arachnologists announced the tarantula qualified as a new genus and species, Juchniewicz posted the news on his store’s Facebook page, saying his greatest dream had come true.Piorun and Skowronek are now advertising the species for sale through their online stores, asking for more than $300 for a juvenile. Peter Kirk, chairman of the British Tarantula Society in London, says he saw B. simoroxigorum spiderlings labeled as captive-bred at an exposition in the United Kingdom just a few weeks ago.But Juchniewicz, who is based in Dewsbury, U.K., and is not selling the species, says there are no captive-bred B. simoroxigorum spiders on the market. The two animals he and the other collectors took in Sarawak died without breeding, he says. All B. simoroxigorum on the market have been caught in the wild and smuggled in “very, very big amounts” by others, he says.”Illegal tarantula collecting is a burgeoning problem worldwide,” says tarantula expert Rick West of Sooke, Canada. Collectors are meeting demand for “prettier, rarer, nastier, larger” spiders. Illegal collectors have long favored Brazil and Mexico, he says, but have begun to shift their hunts to Southeast Asia.Engkamat Lading, deputy controller of Wildlife Sarawak, says his powers to prevent illegal trade stop at the border. Although collecting nonprotected wildlife without a permit in Sarawak is punishable with a year in prison, he says, “how to get hold of [the collectors]? They have left Sarawak.” He hopes to get the three collectors banned from re-entering Sarawak.Joseph Koh, an arachnologist at the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum in Singapore and author of several guides on spiders in Southeast Asia, says collectors sometimes dig up tarantula nests and destroy the arachnids’ sites. “As such spiders are rare to begin with,” Koh says, “wiping out their few remaining habitats, and destroying or capturing the juveniles, will definitely threaten the survival of such vulnerable species.”In the United States and Canada, it is a crime to violate the wildlife laws of another country, but no EU country forbids it, says Ernie Cooper, a wildlife trade specialist in Vancouver, Canada, and a member of the International Union for Conservation of Nature Spider and Scorpion Specialist Group. As a result, Cooper says, “The primary market for illegally collected or traded tarantulas is the EU.” Those spiders can then easily be exported to North America, Pedro Cardoso and Caroline Fukushima, biologists at the University of Helsinki who study illegal trade in tarantulas and scorpions, wrote in an email.The arachnologists, however, may have broken U.K. laws. In signatory countries of the Nagoya Protocol, including the United Kingdom, taxonomists must ensure that specimens they study are legal. Darren Mann, head of zoology at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, tells Science that the arachnologists who worked on the new tarantula are not staff members and that the museum won’t house specimens collected illegally. Ray Hale, the British Tarantula Society’s vice-chairman and an arachnologist in Sussex, adds that Gabriel and Sherwood “have been naïve in the extreme” about the sources of the specimens they examined.Charles Leh, who retired in 2018 after 35 years as a curator at the Sarawak Museum, appreciates foreign taxonomists’ contributions because there is little local interest. But he contends that Gabriel and Sherwood should have been more cautious and not used poached specimens.Conservation of tarantulas and other spiders gets little attention from governments or advocacy groups, Cooper says. “Increased awareness of the problem might open up new opportunities” to address illegal tarantula trade, he says.With reporting by Erik Stokstad.last_img read more

ICC will wait for police report before taking action: Pawar

first_imgInternational Cricket Council President Sharad Pawar on Monday said the allegations of ‘spot-fixing’ and ‘match-fixing’ against Pakistani cricketers are very serious but the ICC would wait for a report from the police in London before deciding on its course of action.”Until and unless the process of investigation is over, it is improper for me to react,” Pawar told reporters in Mumbai.”We have discussed it within the ICC and have decided that let us wait for the police’s investigation report. After that we have to take a viewpoint of the two Board, the Pakistan Cricket Board and the England and Wales Cricket Board,” he added.Reacting to the scandal, which implicates captain Salman Butt, pacers Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Aamir, wicketkeeper Kamran Akmal and three other unnamed players, Pawar said he does not make comments on what is essentially a media report.”If this is established, there will be quite a serious view that will be taken by the Pakistan Cricket Board, the England Cricket Board and the ICC,” he said.”I am absolutely confident that both Boards will never encourage protecting anybody who has done a wrong thing.Whatever the allegations, the allegations themselves are quite serious,” he added.The furore follows a sting operation by a British tabloid in which a bookie, Mazhar Majeed, is seen boasting about the bribes he paid to get Asif and Aamir bowl no balls during Pakistan’s Lord’s Test against England, which the visitors lost by an innings and 225 runs.Pawar said he would be speaking to the officials from the ECB and the PCB to discuss the matter.advertisement”There is a conference call that I will be attending in which somebody from the ECB and the PCB would be there,” he said.Asked about the Indian bookies about whom Majeed talks about in the sting operation, Pawar said he was not aware of this.”I don’t know. The BCCI have to take a view on that. The BCCI is one of our member and I am sure if any serious matter is there, the BCCI will take cognizance of this,” he said.”I can’t come to a conclusion based on a video,” he reasoned.last_img read more

Just practice for German giants Bayern Munich

first_imgBayern Munich captain Philipp Lahm.Even the most ardent of fans will not give India a chance against Bayern Munich. But that does not stop Bayern captain Philipp Lahm from giving respect to their rivals for Tuesday’s friendly match at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.”We have come here to win. We want to play attractive football and show the kind of football a top European side plays,” he said.Lahm was honest enough to admit that he has no knowledge about football in this country. “We know cricket is the most popular sport here and the only time we have heard about Indian football is when Bhaichung Bhutia played for World XIs in friendly matches,” he said.His German teammate Bastian Schweinsteiger too is well aware of Bhutia’s standing for the Indian team. “I have just returned from a neck injury and hope that Bhaichung does not attack our half much often so that it makes my task more difficult,” he joked.When asked to predict the score-line, Schweinsteiger also said the same thing what his captain had to say about the match.”This is our last match before the second leg of the Bundesliga starts. So we are taking it very seriously. We want to show what we are capable of,” he said.While Bayern is so much upbeat about the match, India coach Savio Medeira was honest enough to admit his team’s shortcomings. “Everyone knows the difference of the standards between the two teams. For us, it will be about enjoying the match,” he said.advertisementAnd Bhaichung Bhutia, whose farewell match it is, said that though he can return from retirement, if needed, he doesn’t think the need will ever arise.”I am ready to come back from the retirement but with some talented youngsters in the side, I don’t think there will be any need for it,” he smiled.last_img read more

Layul Mountaineers’ and Skiers’ Association: Saving lives of trapped trekkers

first_imgIn September 2005, when four bodies were spotted over the Kangla Glacier, the authorities were perplexed over their identities as nobody had been reported to be missing. The real daunting challenge, however, was to retrieve the bodies from 19,000-ft height. THE BRAVEHEARTS: LMSA volunteersAfter a week-long expedition, the Layul Mountaineers’,In September 2005, when four bodies were spotted over the Kangla Glacier, the authorities were perplexed over their identities as nobody had been reported to be missing. The real daunting challenge, however, was to retrieve the bodies from 19,000-ft height.THE BRAVEHEARTS: LMSA volunteersAfter a week-long expedition, the Layul Mountaineers’ and Skiers’ Association (LMSA) was able to retrieve one body. It was identified as that of a Swedish woman, who had disappeared in the area 23 years ago with three others.The feat earned the search party a pat from the local administration and the Swedish Embassy in Delhi. For LMSA volunteers, however, it was just another mission accomplished.Founded by Norbu Panse, LMSA is a voluntary organisation of natives-farmers, shopkeepers, teachers, lawyers and even priests-based in Keylong, the administrative headquarters of Lahaul-Spiti district which specialises in rescue operations.The organisation was born in the wake of a disaster. In 1979 Lahaul was hit by a series of snow avalanches and landslides that caused more than 250 deaths. The locals had no training in rescue.They depended on teams from outside the valley which could operate only during winters via helicopter. Panse, then a havaldar of Dogra Scouts who had trained at the army’s High Altitude Warfare School at Gulmarg, set up a self-help group in his village Yurnath near Keylong. In 1981, LMSA was born.Himachal PradeshIt focused on adventure sports and trained local youth in rescue techniques. The association now has over 100 volunteers and employs ingenious methods in its operations. These include using “Chhang”, a local brew, to revive those trapped under snow and making goggles out of plastic bags to help victims overcome snow blindness. In the Kangla Glacier operation they used a carry-on gas cylinder to make a sledge to bring down the body.”Our volunteers know the terrain like the back of their hand. Their scattered presence helps in a real-time rescue effort,” says Panse. r    “Helping those in distress is like religion to us,” says trainer and a founding member Bishan Dass.LMSA has become the first port of call for the administration when people get trapped in snow. “They are quite an asset in crisis situations,” says Lahaul-Spiti Superintendent of Police Asif Jalal.But, for the “bravehearts”, saving lives is a way of life.advertisementlast_img read more

Milkha’s special gift for Farhan

first_imgThey Are a piece of India’s history and by his own admission, one of Milkha Singh’s most prized possessions.But keen to mark the occasion as the shoot for Bhaag Milkha Bhaag – the film based on his life – gets underway, the Flying Sikh has given the shoes he wore during his iconic sprint at the 1960 Rome Olympics as a special memento to Farhan Akhtar. Milkha had barely missed picking up a Bronze for India at the event by a fraction of a second.Farhan, as you all know, will be essaying Milkha’s rise as one of Independent India’s first sporting legends in the Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra- directed film.The Flying Sikh presented his special shoes to Farhan in Chandigarh, where the first schedule of Bhaag Milkha Bhaag is being shot.The film’s script has been written by Prasoon Joshi and Mehra. Milkha, we hear, is extremely happy with the script and has liked the way his character has been etched out.Farhan, on his part, has been working very hard to step into the legend’s shoes. Apart from the long hours of grueling training, he has also spent a lot of time with the man himself to better understand his mannerisms and journey as a whole.last_img read more

IPL 2012 Live: RCB vs KKR cricket scores and commentary

first_imgA comfortable win for Kolkata. Bangalore went into the break midway with all the momentum after Kolkata’s late collapse but lost the plot completely in the first 6 overs. Kallis picked up the first 2, including the big man Gayle, and Balaji demolished the middle order with a terrific spell. He bowled with a good rhythm and struck important blows including wickets of Kohli and ABD, which left too much for the inexperienced Bangalore middle order. Bangalore were always playing the catch-up game after all the early wickets, and eventually lost by a big margin at the M Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore on Tuesday. Score | PhotosKallis: We played some good cricket today. We were under a bit of pressure after the first 2 games but did well today. We knew that the new ball will be crucial – the ball was doing something and we had to pick the wickets. Gayle is a dangerous player, but we knew that we had a big chance against him upfront.IPL 2012: RCB vs KKR Live: KKR win by 42 runs7:55 pm | 19.6 overs: WICKET – And it’s all over for RCB – They go down by 42 runs. Shakib Al Hasan to Vinay Kumar, out Caught by Shukla!! A wicket to end the game. Sums up the Bangalore innings, and the match in fact. Comes down the track and heaves across but Shukla judges it well and takes it just inside the ropes. A big win for the visitors, who have bounced back after a couple of losses. Vinay Kumar c Shukla b Shakib Al Hasan 25(26) [6s-1] (RCB 124/9 in 20 overs)advertisementZaheer Khan comes to the crease7:55 pm | 17.6 overs: WICKET! Shakib Al Hasan to Harshal Patel, out Bowled!! A wicket for Shakib. The arm ball that skids on after pitching on off, Harshal Patel was neither forward nor back and let a huge gap between bat and pad, the ball sneaks through the gate to hit off stump. Harshal Patel b Shakib Al Hasan 10(9) [4s-1] (RCB 106/8 in 17.6 overs)7:45 pm: Strategic time out: RCB need 75 off 23 balls. Vinay Kumar and Harshal Patel are at the crease.15.5 overs: Shakib Al Hasan to Vinay Kumar, no run, was that a missed stumping chance? Yes! Vinay Kumar comes down the track but misses it completely, goes through the gate and Bisla fumbled behind to allow him back, poor effort that.Harshal Patel comes to the crease 7:32 pm | 14.2 overs: WICKET! Doeschate to Saurabh Tiwary, out Caught by Shukla!! Straight to the fielder! That’s catching practice. In the slot for him to swing across and he does exactly that, gets it off the middle of the bat but hits it flat and straight to deep mid wicket. Shukla didn’t have to move an inch, and Bangalore continue to slide. Saurabh Tiwary c Shukla b Doeschate 18(19) [4s-1] (RCB 78/7 in 14.2 overs)Vinay Kumar comes to the crease 7:25 pm | 11.5 overs: WICKET! Balaji to Vettori, out Bowled!! I’m afraid Bangalore’s hopes end with that dismissal. Vettori was trying to be innovative and shuffled across once again, Balaji maintained it simple and straight with a slower ball, Vettori played too early and missed it. 4th wicket for Balaji, he has been terrific today! Vettori b Balaji 20(12) [4s-3 6s-1] (RCB 60/6 in 11.5 over)Vettori trying revival of sorts, but eventually the pressure will get to him.10.4 overs: Bhatia to Vettori, FOUR, this is superb batting! Vettori looks a determined man. Bhatia bowls this full and outside off, Vettori moves across quickly and paddles it fine to the fine leg fence, picked his spot superbly and executed it even better 10.3 overs: SIX – a big one there Bhatia to Vettori, SIX, Vettori continues to fight! This was well picked – a slower one outside off but Vettori goes on his knees and slog sweeps, drags it from there over the deep mid wicket fence 7:15 pm | 9.6 overs: RCB are 43/5. Balaji to Saurabh Tiwary, 1 run, catch DROPPED by Shakib. That’s a sitter! Tiwary charges down at this short ball and pulls it flat and straight to deep square leg, Shakib positions himself well but the ball pops in and out of his hands. Will Saurabh Tiwary use this chance?! Daniel Vettori, left handed bat, comes to the crease 7:08 pm | 9.1 overs: WICKET! And KKR are busy pressing for a win… Balaji to Agarwal, out Caught by Gambhir!! Another wicket. The 3rd one for Balaji – he unleashes his broad smile. This is good bowling – back of a length and angled in, Agarwal looks to play across but it bounces a touch extra, lobs off the leading edge for a simple catch to extra cover. Gambhir completes the catch and calls his team-mates for a conference. A huddle perhaps? Agarwal c Gambhir b Balaji 5(6) (RCB 33/9 in 9.1 overs)advertisementMayank Agarwal, right handed bat, comes to the crease 7:00 pm | 7.2 overs: WICKET! Balaji to de Villiers, out Bowled!! What a stunner! Absolute peach from Balaji and he is on a roll. He did this to Shane Watson last year and does the same to de Villiers now! Angles it in and pitches on off, ABD thinks it will come in with the angle and looks to block but the ball straightens and goes past the outside edge to hit off. Absolute peach, nothing else to say. Bangalore will have to chase this down without Gayle, Kohli and de Villiers. AB de Villiers b Balaji 10(10) [4s-1] (RCB 25/4 in 7.2 overs)Saurabh Tiwary, left handed bat, comes to the crease 6:50 pm | 5.5 overs: WICKET! Things getting rather tough for RCB. Balaji to Virat Kohli, out Caught by Manoj Tiwary!! Another important wicket! Just reward for Balaji who has started with a superb over – 4 dot balls and then this huge strike. Once again lands it in an awkward length on middle stump channel and gets it to straighten off the seam, Kohli’s feet don’t move as he tries to work across, only managed a thick leading edge to point. Kohli wasn’t looking at his best today at all, he is furious with himself as he walks off. Virat Kohli c Manoj Tiwary b Balaji 6(14) [4s-1] (RCB 20/3 in 5.5 overs)AB de Villiers comes to the crease 6:38 pm | 3.3 overs: WICKET! And Chris Gayle falls, RCB come under massive pressure. Kallis to Gayle, out Caught by Shukla!! Gayle goes!! No Gayle storm today folks – it’s a huge disappointment to the home fans. Gayle c Shukla b Kallis 2(8) (RCB 8/2 in 3.3 overs)Virat Kohli comes to the crease 6:30 pm | 1.4 overs: WICKET! OK, early wicket there. Kallis to Pujara, out Caught by Yusuf Pathan!! That’s the start they wanted. Poor shot though, there is a slip in place but he opens the face – this was full and just outside off, Pujara gets forward and tries to run it down to third man, the ball goes off the outside half of the blade straight to slip. Pujara c Yusuf Pathan b Kallis 6(9) [6s-1] (RCB 6/9 in 7.1 overs) 6:20 pm | 0.1 overs: Pujara and Gayle are at the crease. Pujara is on strike. Brett Lee will open the attack  ROYAL CHALLENGERS BANGALORE INNINGS: Target 166KOLKATA KNIGHT RIDERS: 165/8 in 20 overs. Alright! At one stage it looked like 200 was a certainty. But once Bisla fell, the innings fell apart. They kept losing wickets at regular intervals. Yusuf, Gambhir, Tiwary, Doeschate and Shakib fell in quick succession. Shukla didn’t contribute either and they would consider themselves 30 runs short looking at how they were going at halfway stage. But, that being said, 166 is not child’s play. It would require a strong contribution from the top order for Vettori’s men to steal the show tonight.Rajat Bhatia, right handed bat, comes to the crease  advertisement6:04 pm | 19.3 overs: WICKET! Harshal Patel to Shukla, out Caught by Zaheer!! What a catch! Shukla goes for the pull and gets a top edge, the ball goes miles in the air swirling around and Zaheer at mid wicket ran back, kept his eyes on the ball until the last moment and falls over to complete the catch. Shukla c Zaheer b Harshal Patel 5 (8) (KKR 154/78 in 19.3 overs)Brett Lee, right handed bat, comes to the crease  5:55 pm | 18.3 overs: WICKET! Vinay Kumar to Shakib Al Hasan, out Caught by Pujara!! They are falling like nine pins, you can’t help but feel for Shah Rukh Khan. He was all smiling moments ago but it has all died down, Shakib Al Hasan tries get under that overpitched delivery, wanted to heave it over long on, mishits it to the fielder at long off, Pujara is as safe as houses. Shakib Al Hasan c Pujara b Vinay Kumar 4(4) (KKR 151/7 in 18.3 overs)Laxmi Shukla, right handed bat, comes to the crease. Kolkata have lost 5 wickets for 19 runs.   5:50 pm | 17.2 overs: WICKET! And Murali strikes… Muralitharan to Doeschate, out Caught by Vettori!! The crowd erupts as another one bites the dust. The top spinner does the trick for Murali, Doeschate was looking for the sweep, the ball bounced a bit more, took the top edge and the ball went straight to the fielder at short fine leg, Vettori finally has a smile on his face. Kolkata have dug their own grave after starting so well. Doeschate c Vettori b Muralitharan 3(4) (KKR 143/6 in 17.2 overs) Shakib Al Hasan, left handed bat, comes to the crease 5:45 pm | 16.5 overs: WICKET! Zak gets his man… Zaheer to Manoj Tiwary, out Caught by Agarwal!! They are falling apart! Slower one from Zaheer, Manoj Tiwary was shaping for the pull but played it a little early, ended up spooning a simple catch to backward square leg, they have just turned on the self-destruction mode. Manoj Tiwary c Agarwal b Zaheer 2(5) (KKR 140/5 in 16.5 overs)16.2 overs: WICKET! Zaheer strikes and Gambhir departs! Zaheer to Gambhir, out Caught by Harshal Patel!! End of a fine innings. Gambhir tried to reverse sweep it with the bck of the bat, lobs it towards short third man, Harshal Patel dives forward and takes a good low catch. It was nicely bowled from Zaheer, full and on the off stump, Gambhir couldn’t do much after he decided to play that shot! Gambhir c Harshal Patel b Zaheer 64(39) [4s-9 6s-1] (KKR 139/4 in 16.2 overs) Manoj Tiwary comes to the crease 5:35 pm | 14.1 overs: WICKET! Another one and RCB are back in the game. Vinay Kumar to Yusuf Pathan, out Caught by Gayle!! Yusuf Pathan got a life in his very first ball, but he’s not determined to make the most of it, a simple catch at backward point, Gayle was the fielder. It was too close to the body to be playing the cut shot, slashed at it and it went off the outer half of the bat straight to Gayle, good bowling from Vinay Kumar, kept it slightly short and close to the body, the extra bounce did the trick for his team. Yusuf Pathan c Gayle b Vinay Kumar 1(3) (KKR 126/3 in 13.3 overs)  Yusuf Pathan comes to the crease 5:30 pm | 13.3 overs: WICKET! Bisla falls after a blazing 46. Muralitharan to Bisla, out Stumped!! Bye Bye Bisla says Muralitharan as he bowls a doosra, Bisla didn’t pick it up at all, he was coming down the track looking to go downtown, misread the line of the delivery completely and ABD has an easy task behind the stumps, Bisla was a long way down the track. He has played a fine hand though. Bisla st de Villiers b Muralitharan 46(29) [4s-2 6s-3] (KKR 125/2 in 13.3 overs)  Bisla and Gambhir are going hammer and tongs against RCB. They are well aware that Chris Gyle is playing for RCB in this match and no target is too tough when he gets going.5:24 pm | 12.6 overs: That’s Gambhir’s 50. Vinay Kumar to Gambhir, FOUR, overpitched and beautifully played! Gambhir gets underneath it, carves it over extra cover, off the middle of the bat and it almost cleared the ropes, Gambhir gets his FIFTY.Manvinder Bisla, right handed bat, comes to the crease 4:58 pm | 6.2 overs: WICKET! Kallis falls but not before giving a jump start to KKR… Vettori to Kallis, out Caught by de Villiers!! The captain does it for his team. A much needed break-through this. Good delivery from Vettori, it didn’t turn, got a bit of extra bounce, went straight on and was slightly short, Kallis backed away looking to cut, gets a thick outside edge to the keeper. ABD makes no mistake and Kallis departs for 22. Kallis c de Villiers b Vettori 22(23) [4s-3 6s-1] (RCB 60/1 in 6.2 overs)4:40 pm | 5 overs: KKR are 47/0  with Kallis (14) and Gambhir (30 off 12 balls) at the crease. The match started late, maybe that’s why KKR captain Gautam Gambhir is in a rush to complete the innings ASAP.4:15 pm | o.1 over: Kallis and Gambhir are at the crease. Kallis is on strike. Zaheer will open the attack. Alright, the electrical problem has been sorted out. Kallis is walking out with Gambhir. Fasten your seatbelts folks, here we go! For those who are asking – no overs reduced. It will still be a 20 over game. Zaheer Khan has the new ball. One slip in place for Kallis. Still no news from the venue! Wonder what the problem really is. It is not a complete power failure. We can see the big screen working fine. So are the audio systems.3:55 pm – VINAY KUMAR’S PREDICTION: The Bangalore seamer feels 170-180 should be a good total. “The humidity is a bit high. All the players are feeling good. Coach is feeling confident. Bangalore’s wicket generally favors both batsmen and bowlers. 170-180 will be a good score. It is a very good learning curve playing with Vettori, Gayle and ABDV.”3:47 pm – CAPTAIN’S VIEW: Gautam Gambhir says, “It’s important for us to turn it around, it’s a long tournament but we can’t play the kind of cricket we played in the first 2 games. It’s just a matter of 1 game. Lee has a niggle in his hamstring but he said he is fit enough to play. We would’ve bowled first as well. Shakib and ten Doeschate return for McCullum and Narine.”3:45 pm – CAPTAIN’S VIEW: Daniel Vettori says, “We always get good support here, they know their cricket as well. ABD is a classy player, he showed us what he can do. With Muralitharan in the side it makes my job a lot easier. We have spoken about momentum, that’s important. Bowling first suits us, especially with Gayle back in the side. Gayle returns for McDonald, happy that Gayle is back – he was fantastic last year and hope for more of the same this year.: 3:40 pm – CHANGES ON BOTH SIDES: So, now, the  teams have been named and there are a couple of changes on both sides. First, the big news, Chris Gayle is playing this game, so Kolkata better watch out. The big West Indian was spectacular during the last edition. Andrew McDonald to sit out for RCB. Kolkata have left out Brendon McCullum and Sunil Narine to make space for Shakib-al-Hasan and Ryan ten Doeschate.3:39 pm – KOLKATA PLAYING XI: Manvinder Bisla(w), Jacques Kallis, Gautam Gambhir(c), Manoj Tiwary, Shakib Al Hasan, Yusuf Pathan, Ryan ten Doeschate, Rajat Bhatia, Brett Lee, Laxmi Shukla, Lakshmipathy Balaji3:37 pm – BANGALORE PLAYING XI: Cheteshwar Pujara, Chris Gayle, Virat Kohli, AB de Villiers(w), Saurabh Tiwary, Mayank Agarwal, Daniel Vettori(c), Vinay Kumar, Harshal Patel, Zaheer Khan, Muttiah Muralitharan 3:35 pm – BANGALORE WIN TOSS: Daniel Vettori has won the toss and the Royal Challengers will bowl first. The left-arm spinner seems to be confident in his bowling attack… and why shouldn’t he be, with himself and Zaheer Khan in the line-up. Kolkata will be hoping to deliver a much better batting performance in this game. Perhaps it’ll be Yusuf Pathan’s day!3:30 pm – BUZZ AROUND THE GROUND: Hello and welcome to the live coverage of this exciting match between Royal Challengers Bangalore and Kolkata Knight Riders. This one promises to be one hell of a game — a real cracker. Bangalore are in fine form, which they proved by beating the Delhi Daredevils in their first match. On the other hand, Kolkata have suffered two disappointing losses, but Gautam Gambhir and his men know they are capable of much more. The game is set up perfectly to provide thrills.last_img read more